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French sewing machines

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Barthelemy Thimonnier

Barthélemy Thimonnier

 

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                Alex I Askaroff

Alex has spent a lifetime in the sewing industry and is considered one of the foremost experts of pioneering machines and their inventors. He has written extensively for trade magazines, radio, television, books and publications world wide. Over the last two decades Alex has been painstakingly building this website to encourage enthusiasts around around the Globe. Books by Alex Askaroff

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Most of us know the name Singer but few are aware of his amazing life story, his rags to riches journey from a little runaway to one of the richest men of his age. The story of Isaac Merritt Singer will blow your mind, his wives and lovers his castles and palaces all built on the back of one of the greatest inventions of the 19th century. For the first time the most complete story of a forgotten giant is brought to you by Alex Askaroff.

 
 

 

Barthélemy Thimonnier


Barthélemy Thimonnier 1793 - 1857

The Tailor of Amplepuis

By far the most famous name in the history of the sewing machine in France is Barthélemy Thimonnier. Barthélemy Thimonnier, sometimes spelt Chimonnier, is possibly responsible for the first real or practical sewing machine in the history of the world. Calm down, calm down. I only said possibly. you will have to read my full history of the invention of the sewing machine to see how Barthélemy Thimonnier fits into the whole picture of sewing machine development.

Although his invention had little impact on the evolution of the sewing machine it was a fascinating piece of kit and certainly the first factory in the world using sewing machines was because of the great man.

Let us just look at the first French sewing machine and Barthélemy Thimonnier.

His Story

Barthelemy Thimonnier 1793 - 1857


The later Thimonnier sewing machine still had big flaws, no feed mechanism so the operator had to manually force the work along and an open barbed needle that continually caught up in the fabric. However even with these flaws the machine could sew faster than a human by hand alone. Picture with kind permission of the Science Museum.

Barthélemy Thimonnier was born on August 19, 1793 in L'Arbresle, Rhône.Barthélemy Thimonnier was the oldest son of seven children. He studied tailoring for a while in Lyon. Barthélemy married Jeanne Marie Bonnassieux and within a few years the happy couple had three children. Tragedy struck and his young wife died, possibly in childbirth. Heartbroken Barthélemy had to leave his children with his mother and leave to find work.

Barthélemy travelled around as a tailor finding work where he could. This was a surprisingly popular industry when all clothes were made by hand. A skilled tailor was in demand and he could pretty much set up shop anywhere making garments for local dignitaries as he travelled around, all the time sending money home to his mother to support his children.

In 1822, while working in Panissieres he met, fell in love and married Magdeleine Varinier. A year or so later around 1824-25 he settled just outside Saint-Étienne near Paris and set up a tailoring business.

Tailors worked hard and were paid poorly. As Barthélemy Thimonnier sewed away each day his inventive mind was hard at work trying to figure out how to make a machine do the low-paid work of the tailor. Barthélemy was no engineer but he had struck upon the idea of mechanising a crochet hook used by so many seamstresses and knitters. If he could work out a way of making a machine that pulled the thread through fabric using a hooked needle he could sew faster than any hand stitcher and earn more money.

Bart formed a friendship with Auguste Ferrand who had some engineering skills and was working as a teacher at a local mining academy. After years of trial-and-error the two of them formed a machine out of wood and metal that actually did help to stitch fabric. It was large and complex with roughly engineered gearing but it actually worked slightly faster than sewing by hand.

17 July 1830

Barthélemy Thimonnier & Auguste Ferrand

By 1829, the two had cobbled together the very first French sewing machine. By June of 1830 the pair had gone into partnership. The patent for their machine was issued on 17 July 1830.  

The first real practical sewing machine that we know of was born although in reality it was sort of loop-catcher, crochet machine rather than the stitch that we recognise today. Barthélemy Thimonnier (I'm going to call him Bart now as it makes my head hurt spelling his name) took out a further patent for a barbed needle to be used in his sewing machine. Smaller versions of his barbed needles are still used today in embellishing sewing machines.

Barthélemy Thimonnier sewing machine

Barthélemy Thimonnier's, first, mainly wooden sewing machine. The thread is below the table and was caught by the barbed needle and pulled through the work. The machines were nicknamed 'arm breakers' or 'leg crackers' as they were so hard to work. Note the barbed needle laying on the base of the machine. You can see how it would snag the material as it is pulled through which really was his big problem.

The sewing machine that Barthélemy Thimonnier & Auguste Ferrand made was primarily of wood with metal working parts. It actually worked, producing a  sort of simple chain stitch, or as they called it on their patent a tambour stitch, you know the sort of stitch you find across the top of potato sacks.

In fact the sewing machines worked well enough for him to gain a contract to build loads of them. They were used to sew uniforms for the French army.

Before long Barthélemy Thimonnier & Auguste Ferrand were sewing away with dozens of machines taking work from the hungry tailors of Paris. The first sewing machine factory in the world was doing well but we all know what Frenchmen are like when their blood is up. Madame Guillotine was still warm from their revolution.

On the 20 January 1831 a crowd or angry out-of-work tailors ransacked the Rue de Sèvres factory. At first they threw garlic at the machines but to their amazement they bounced off! They then decided to have a booze up and torch Bart’s workshop properly.

A crowd watched as they piled all the wooden sewing machines up outside his workshop and burnt them. They danced around the fire singing Vive La France or something like that.

Poor old Bart headed for the hills, his business in flames.

Look, I can be as rude as I like about the French as I have a lot of French blood in me and not via a blood transfusion!

Interestingly some say that the word sabotage comes from the industrial revolution. French workers wore heavy wooden clogs known as 'sabots' to keep their feet above the dirt. They would often use them to jam the machinery in the looms. No one could make you take your shoes off so you could go anywhere with them and use them as a hidden weapon of destruction. See how interesting this page is! Now back to Bart...

At some point Auguste Ferrand disappears from our story. Unperturbed, and with that usual French resilience Barthélemy Thimonnier started all over again with an even better model (more patents followed in 1841, 1845, 1847 and 1848). The renamed 'Embroidery Machine' was now capable of sewing 200 stitches per minute seven times faster than a tailor by hand! I would love to see that in action as I believe that his mechanism was doomed to failure due to his needle design which would snag as many threads as it made.

A later patent managed 300 stitches per minute. By 1832, Barthélemy Thimonnier was back in Amplepuis with an improved version of his machine.

Nevertheless, those sneaky tailors knew what he was up to and set about the poor fellow again, this time with far more powerful weapons, strings of onions!

Barthélemy Thimonnier fled to England just like the many aristocrats that had feared for their lives during the French Revolution years earlier. Where was the Scarlet Pimpernel when he was needed eh!

It is unfortunate that the French, at that time, did not see the potential of the sewing machine for it made people like Isaac Singer and Elias Howe fabulously wealthy. It also saw the start of mass production and provided millions of jobs around the world. There is no doubt in my mind that had the French embraced this new technology earlier they would have benefitted as a nation beyond any imagination.

Jean-Marie Magnin

An engineer from Villefranche-sur-saone, near Lyon, named Magnin, who was the son of a lawyer took a keen interested in the works of Thimonnier (for whom money was always lacking).

In 1845, under the name of Thimonier et Magnin, they renewed Thimonnier’s original patent of 1830 and organised the first French manufacture of machines for sewing in Villefranche-sur-saone.

This manufacturing process allowed our inventor to put in action certain refinements of which he had long dreamed. The completed machines were able to make 200 stitches per minute and were sold at 50 francs a piece.

On the 11th of August 1845 The Journal of Villefranche presented the machine to the public. The audience were impressed with its qualities but 50 francs was a kings ransom, so few orders followed. Thimonnier went on to patent his improved model in America in 1850.

In October 1847 Barthélemy Thimonnier and Jean-Marie Magnin patented more improvements to their embroidery sewing machine. A faster type of Tambour stitch machine. In England he tied up with Phillip May of London and Manchester to secure his patent.

Barthélemy Thimonnier patent, England, 8 February 1848

Unfortunately Barthélemy Thimonnier stuck with his old ideas of hooking and pulling threads rather than improve his type of unreliable stitch. The stitch came undone easily and had to be sealed at each end with candle wax. Also it was easy for the machine to miss stitches and once a stitch was missed the whole seam could unravel. Basically the design was flawed unlike the Willcox & Gibbs chain stitch which had overcome all the problems associated with it.


Here is a close-up of the much-improved stitch formation and needle used on his later patent applications. Look how simple it is but no one had managed it before. The biggest problem was that when the barbed needle went back up through the work it often snagged threads in the fabric causing the operator to deftly un-snag the fabric before pulling it along and plunging the pedal down for the next stitch.

Barthélemy Thimonnier was still going strong with his flawed machine. In 1850 he applied for American patents in the hope of securing lucrative business in the largest democracy in the world. However his design was now terribly outdated and overtaken by the famous Elias Howe and others with their lock stitch machines.

Now, in England he sold some of his patents to a Manchester firm and Jean-Marie Magnin entered their machine in the 1850 Crystal Palace Exhibition in London but unfortunately his demonstration machine was held up and never made it. He pleaded with the judges but rules were rules and their machine was excluded from the competition. This was the last resort for Jean-Marie Magnin who returned the machine to Barthélemy Thimonnier and in a fury returned to France. their partnership was over.

Barthélemy Thimonnier had to be one of the unluckiest entrepreneurs/inventors that I have ever come across. By the 1850's he should have been far richer than Isaac Singer and Elias Howe combined.

Barthélemy Thimonnier real problem was similar to that of Elias Howe, he could not sell his machine well. A week with a double glazing or insurance salesman would have worked wonders for him. One of Bart's real problems was they way he tried to promote his machine, he hit the domestic market instead of looking at the factories like Isaac and Elias. It was the factories that could afford his machine.

"The tailor or man of work who 'opposes' my machine is like the child that revolts against his nurse. It makes no sense to me why my inventions should be attacked."    B T 1850

Hummn! Me thinks he needs a little lesson in how to talk to people. Thimonnier knew that people were having trouble trying to operate his difficult machine and so he wrote some instructions which even included how to make an assortment of different barbed needles.

This helped and after perseverance at the 1855 World Fair in Paris Barthélemy Thimonnier won the First class or Gold Medal. I am not sure if that was the French pampering their own as by now many far better machines were being exhibited and sold.

This was a bit of French politics trying to show the world that it was a Frenchman, one Barthélemy Thimonnier, who had actually invented the first practical sewing machine. The machine would not have been as good as the foreign competitors from America.


Another first for the Internet, the America 1850 Barthélemy Thimonnier Patent for his Tambour Stitch machine. You can see how his later sewing machine was starting to resemble other sewing machines from the period.

 United States Patent Office
Patent 7622 September 3 & September 20, 1850

To all of whom it may concern:
Be it known that I,
Barthélemy Thimonnier, Aine, of Amplepuis, Department of Du Rhone, in the Republic of France, a citizen of France. Have invented or discovered new and useful improvement to the sewing machine for the forming of stitches in fabrics.

As much as he tried poor old Barthélemy Thimonnier never regained his former success and although he had made one of the first reasonable machines capable of a type of sewing in the entire history of the world it did not stop the old tailor ending up broke.

Just two years after his success at the Paris show he died in poverty never gaining from his amazing invention.

Barthélemy Thimonnier died on 5 July (or possibly August depending on what research you read) 1857 at a good age (for the time anyway, he was 64) back in Amplepuis.

Barthélemy Thimonnier's legacy

His son, Etienne Thimonnier kept a working model for over 30 years as a memento of his father's efforts.  

In 1871 Etienne opened a small shop selling sewing machines and bicycles which he brought in from various countries.

In 1883 Etienne Thimonnier was granted an US patent, 287,592 for a sewing machine which they had successfully patented around Europe.

The company formed by Etienne Thimonnier and possible partners Fils & Vernas, carried on diversifying and growing. Jump forward a few World Wars and by the 1980's no more sewing machines were sold by the company which  by then were concentrating on plastic packaging and bag closing equipment.

Barthélemy Thimonnier would have been very proud of the fact that his name will be immortalised for being one of the first people in the history of the world to invent a working and usable sewing machine and setting up the first mass-production workshops using his sewing machines.

There is a Barthélemy Thimonnier museum in Amplepuis housed in an old church, Musée Barthélemy Thimonnier. In the museum is one of Bart's replica machines.

In Lyon in 1931 at Place de L'Abondance a statue of the great inventor was erected.

In 1955 the French Postal Service ran a series of stamps depicting great French inventors, Barthélemy Thimonnier was on the 10 franc stamp but for some reason they managed to put his wrong date of death stating 1859 rather than 1857.

Books by Alex Askaroff


Gnome et Rhone

There have been several other notable French sewing machines including Legat, Peugeot and my personal favourite Hurtu sewing machines. I have a whole page on Hurtu sewing machines and it is well worth your perusal.

Legat Sewing Machine, Paris.

Books by Alex Askaroff

Singer Sewing Machines


The biggest sewing machine sales in France were actually Singer machines that sold so well they built a factory over there. In 1935 Singer's opened a huge plant in Bonnieres on the river Seine not far for Paris. They made great sewing machines for decades.

 
 


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Hi Alex
What a wonderful labyrinth of stitching history! I have come back again and again to read up on your vintage machine history – Thank you for collecting it all together in one place and all your humour!
Lynn

Alex,
Thank you for sharing with us your wealth of knowledge on all things sewing machine.
MR, Bournemouth

Well that's it, I do hope you enjoyed my work. I have spent a lifetime collecting, researching and writing these pages and I love to hear from people so drop me a line and let me know what you thought: alexsussex@aol.com. Also if you have any information to add I would love to put it on my site.

 

 

 

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As a new collector I have found your site has increased my knowledge in a short time to a degree that I couldn't have imagined.
Thank you again for all the useful information you give freely to us.
Kind regards
Brenda P